References and evidence

References for our information materials

Signs and symptoms cards


Meningitis can affect anyone 

After meningitis

    • McGill F, et al., The UK joint specialist societies guideline on the diagnosis and management of acute meningitis and meningococcal sepsis in immunocompetent adults, J Infect (2016). More here.
    • NICE clinical guideline 102.
    • Patient experience.
    • Shears D, Nadel S, Gledhill J, Gorden F, Garralda ME (2007) Psychiatric adjustment in the year after meningococcal disease in childhood. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 46(1): 76-82.
    • Borg J, Christie D, Coen PG, Booy R and Viner RM (2009) Outcomes of meningococcal disease in adolescents: prospective matched cohort study. Paediatrics. 123(3): e502 – e50.

    Bereavement following meningitis (formerly Meningitis bereavement information)

    • Expert opinion from counsellors.
    • Catherine Sanders (1999) Grief The Mourning After, 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons Inc. pp.4-5.

    Your Guide

    • All references are included in this information product which was developed in response to the NICE Quality Standard.

    Fact sheets

    Meningococcal disease

    • NICE Clinical Guideline 102.
    • Parikh SR1, Campbell H2, Gray SJ et al. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, risk factors, intensive care admission and outcomes of invasive meningococcal disease in England, 2010-2015. Vaccine. 2018 Jun 2018;36(26).
    • Viner RM1, Booy R, Johnson H, et al. Outcomes of invasive meningococcal serogroup B disease in children and adolescents (MOSAIC): a case-control study. Lancet Neurol. 2012 Sep;11(9):774-83.
    • Public Heath England. The complete routine immunisation schedule.
    • Oxford Vaccine Group. Meningococcal disease information.

    Pneumococcal meningitis 

    Tuberculous (TB) meningitis 

    Viral meningitis

    • Logan S and MacMahon E. Viral meningitis. BMJ. 2008 336: 36 – 40.
    • McGill F, Griffiths M, Bonnett L et al. Incidence aetiology and sequalae of viral meningitis in UK adults: a multicentre prospective observation short study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Sep;2018(9):992-1003.
    • Meningitis Now (Meningitis Trust) survey 2012 – summary attached to fact sheet.
    • Expert opinions.

    Meningitis vaccines

    Learning and developmental concerns after meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia

    • Personal experience.
    • Expert opinion.
    • Child Brain Injury Trust workshop “Don’t judge a book by its cover”.
    • De Louvois J, Halket S, Harvey D (2006) Effect of meningitis in infancy on school leaving examination results. Arch. Dis. Child. Online doi: 10.1136/adc2006.105916 .
    • Viner R, Booy R, Johnson H et al (2012) Outcomes of invasive meningococcal serogroup B disease in children and adolescents (MOSAIC): a case control study. Lancet Neurology. 11(9): 774 - 783.

    Neonatal meningitis

    Disease statistics

    The following sources were used for all information materials containing disease statistics: