References and evidence

References for our information materials

Signs and symptoms cards


Meningitis can affect anyone 

After meningitis

    • McGill F, et al., The UK joint specialist societies guideline on the diagnosis and management of acute meningitis and meningococcal sepsis in immunocompetent adults, J Infect (2016). More here
    • NICE clinical guideline 102
    • Patient experience
    • Shears D, Nadel S, Gledhill J, Gorden F, Garralda ME (2007) Psychiatric adjustment in the year after meningococcal disease in childhood. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 46(1): 76-82
    • Borg J, Christie D, Coen PG, Booy R and Viner RM (2009) Outcomes of meningococcal disease in adolescents: prospective matched cohort study. Paediatrics. 123(3): e502 – e50

    Bereavement following meningitis (formerly Meningitis bereavement information)

    • Expert opinion from counsellors
    • Catherine Sanders (1999) Grief The Mourning After, 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons Inc. pp.4-5

    Your Guide

    Fact sheets 

    Meningococcal disease

    Parikh SR1, Campbell H2, Gray SJ et al. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, risk factors, intensive care admission and outcomes of invasive meningococcal disease in England, 2010-2015. Vaccine. 2018 Jun 2018;36(26)

    Viner RM1, Booy R, Johnson H, et al. Outcomes of invasive meningococcal serogroup B disease in children and adolescents (MOSAIC): a case-control study. Lancet Neurol. 2012 Sep;11(9):774-83

    Pneumococcal meningitis 

    Jit M. The risk of sequelae due to pneumococcal meningitis in high-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Infect. 2010;61(2):114-124.

    Tuberculous (TB) meningitis 

    Thwaites G (2013) Tuberculous meningitis. Medicine 41:12 683-685

    Thwaite G, Fisher M, Hemingway C et al. (2009) British Infection Society guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis of the central nervous system in adults and children. The Journal of infection 59(3):167-87.

    Viral meningitis

    • Logan S and MacMahon E. Viral meningitis. BMJ. 2008 336: 36 – 40
    • McGill F, Griffiths M, Bonnett L et al. Incidence aetiology and sequalae of viral meningitis in UK adults: a multicentre prospective observation short study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Sep;2018(9):992-1003
    • Meningitis Now (Meningitis Trust) survey 2012 – summary attached to fact sheet

    Meningitis vaccines

    Learning and developmental concerns after meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia

    • Personal experience
    • Expert opinion
    • Child Brain Injury Trust workshop “Don’t judge a book by its cover”
    • De Louvois J, Halket S, Harvey D (2006) Effect of meningitis in infancy on school leaving examination results. Arch. Dis. Child. Online doi: 10.1136/adc2006.105916 
    • Viner R, Booy R, Johnson H et al (2012) Outcomes of invasive meningococcal serogroup B disease in children and adolescents (MOSAIC): a case control study. Lancet Neurology. 11(9): 774 - 783

    Neonatal meningitis

    de Louvois J, Halket S, Harvey D (2005) Neonatal meningitis in England and Wales: sequelae at 5 years of age. European Journal of Paediatrics. 164: 730-734.

    Okike, IO; Ladhani, SN; Johnson et al. (2018) Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors for Poor Outcome in Infants Less Than 90 Days of Age with Bacterial Meningitis in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Paediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 37 (9).

    Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. GroupB Streptococcal Disease, Early-onset (Green-top Guideline No. 36) Third Edition 

    Disease statistics

    The following sources were used for all information materials containing disease statistics: