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References and evidence


Meningitis can affect anyone

After meningitis

  • NICE clinical guideline 102 http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG102/Guidance
  • McGill F, et al., The UK joint specialist societies guideline on the diagnosis and management of acute meningitis and meningococcal sepsis in immunocompetent adults, J Infect (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2016.01.007
  • Patient experience
  • Shears D, Nadel S, Gledhill J, Gorden F, Garralda ME (2007) Psychiatric adjustment in the year after meningococcal disease in childhood. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 46(1): 76-82
  • Borg J, Christie D, Coen PG, Booy R and Viner RM (2009) Outcomes of meningococcal disease in adolescents: prospective matched cohort study. Paediatrics. 123(3): e502 – e509
  • Viner R, Booy R, Johnson H et al (2012) Outcomes of invasive meningococcal serogroup B disease in children and adolescents (MOSAIC): a case control study. Lancet Neurology. 11(9): 774 - 783

Bereavement following meningitis

  • Expert opinion from counsellors
  • Catherine Sanders (1999) Grief The Mourning After, 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons Inc. pp.4-5

Your Guide

Fact Sheets

Meningococcal disease

Pneumococcal meningitis

Tuberculous (TB) meningitis

Viral meningitis

  • Logan S and MacMahon E. Viral meningitis. BMJ. 2008 336: 36 – 40
  • McGill F, Griffiths M, Bonnett L et al. Incidence aetiology and sequalae of viral meningitis in UK adults: a multicentre prospective observation short study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Sep;2018(9):992-1003
  • Meningitis Now (Meningitis Trust) survey 2012 – summary attached to fact sheet
  • Expert opinion

Listeria Meningitis

Cryptococcal meningitis

Mollerets Meningitis

Meningitis vaccines

Learning and developmental concerns after meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia

  • Expert opinion
  • Child Brain Injury Trust workshop “Don’t judge a book by its cover”
  • De Louvois J, Halket S, Harvey D (2006) Effect of meningitis in infancy on school leaving examination results. Arch. Dis. Child. Online doi: 10.1136/adc2006.105916
  • Viner R, Booy R, Johnson H et al (2012) Outcomes of invasive meningococcal serogroup B disease in children and adolescents (MOSAIC): a case control study. Lancet Neurology. 11(9): 774 - 783

Neonatal meningitis (including GBS and E coli)

  • Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in pregnancy and newborn babies: information for you. Royal College Obstetricians & Gynaecologists (December 2017)
  • de Louvois J, Halket S, Harvey D (2005) Neonatal meningitis in England and Wales: sequelae at 5 years of age. European Journal of Paediatrics. 164: 730-734
  • Okike, IO; Ladhani, SN; Johnson et al. (2018) Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors for Poor Outcome in Infants Less Than 90 Days of Age with Bacterial Meningitis in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Paediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 37 (9)
  • Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Group B Streptococcal Disease, Early-onset (Green-top Guideline No. 36) Third Edition: https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg36/
  • Ku LC, Boggess KA, Cohen-Wolkowiez M. Bacterial meningitis in infants. Clin Perinatol. 2015 Mar;42(1):29-45, vii-viii. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2014.10.004. Epub 2014 Dec 6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4332563/
  • Expert opinion

Disease statistics

The following sources were used for information materials containing disease statistics:

Where specific disease statistics are not available, estimates are based on expert opinion.